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雅思写作核心:搞清楚主谓问题作文才能上6分

2018-03-11 14:57来源:无忧雅思编辑:秩名阅读:


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先声明下,文中的例子选自于John Langan的College Writing Skills,来看看美国的教育学家是如何为最浅显易懂的语言, 讲明白主谓这两个核心概念的。 这里关于主谓的知识, 我们需要了解六组。
 
1. A sentence may have more than one verb, more than one subject, or several subjects and verbs.一个句子可能会包含不止一个主语, 不止一个谓语。
 
通常来说, 简单句中只能包含一组主谓信息。 这里所说的“不止一个主语不止一个谓语”只得是什么概念呢, 来看下边的三个练习。
 
The engine coughed and sputtered.
 
Broken glass and empty canslittered the parking lot.
 
Marta, Nilsa, and Robert met after class and headed downtown.
 
句子中虽然出现了多个主语及谓语, 但用and做了衔接, 这种情况并没有违背我们所说的一个主语一个谓语原则。
 
2. The subject of the sentence never appears within a prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase is simply a group of words that begins with a preposition. Following is a list of common prepositions.
 
句子的主语中绝不会包含介词短语。
 
此方法特别适合快速读懂长难句的句子主干。 来看选自雅思阅读中的例句:
 
Evidence gathered in recent years from anthropology and archeology indicates that the region has reported a series of indigenous cultures for even thousands years.
 
按照划掉介词短语找句子主干的方法, 划掉in recent years, from anthropologyand archeology, of indigenous cultures , for even thousands years 这几组介词短语。
 
最终句子变为Evidence gathered indicates that the region has reported a series. 这句文字的主干就变得清晰明了了。 同时也特别鼓励大家用此种方法检验自己的作文。尤其是那些喜欢写长难句的同学, 往往句子写长了后, 看起来是“高级”了, 但仔细一读, 会发现里面缺少核心的句子成分。
 
3. Many verbs consist of more than one word. (The extra verbs are called auxiliary, or helping, verbs.) Here, for example, are some of the many forms of the verb work.
 
很多谓语包含不止一个单词。 例如:
 
Environmental pollution has been recognized as one of the main challenges that we have to overcome in the 21st century.
 
句中的has been recognized三个单词全部是句子的谓语, 缺少其中的任何一个词都会造成歧义。
 
4 .Words like not, just, never, only, and-always are not part of the verb, although. they may appear within the verb.
 
Not ,just, never, only 及 always 这一类词虽然出现在谓语中, 但是不属于谓语的一部分。 此类词为副词, 都是来修饰动词, 即谓语的。
 
Ruby has neverliked cold weather.
 
Our bosswillnotbe singing with the choir this year.
 
The intersectionhas not alwaysbeen this dangerous.
 
5. A verb preceded by to is never the verb of a sentence.
 
To 引导的部分不是谓语。 他们实际是不定式起到修饰作用。
 
At night, my sonlikes to read under the covers.
 
Evelyn decided to separate from her husband.
 
6. An -ing word by itself is never the verb of a sentence. (It may be part of verb, but it must have a helping verb in front of it.)
 
-ing绝不可以独自当做谓语。
 
They going on a trip this weekend.
 
(Not a sentence, because the verb is not complete)
 
They are going on a trip this weekend, (a sentence)
 
此细节在一些五分同学的作文中经常会看到,觉得drinking, going 等等一类词, 翻译过来有动词的意思变觉得是动词,可以做谓语,实则不然,这类词如果要当做谓语来用还需要配合助动词。如例句中所示,配合了are之后,整个谓语才完整。
 
希望通过今天的讲解, 可以让大家对写作评分标准中语法这一项要求有更加清晰的了解。如果主谓的基本概念都无法搞定的话, 作文想达到六分真的是有些不切实际。

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